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清明:春半花盛踏青时

2021-04-03 13:49 阅读公社

清明时节,你在思念谁?

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清明

点击观看视频:二十四节气中的中华文化之清明(中文版)

清明:春半花盛踏青时

清明节,又被称为寒食节,最早可追溯至唐代。

古历载,冬至后一百零五日为“寒食”。是日起,家家都要禁用旧火,只吃冷食,直到新火降临。这便是历史悠久的寒食节。

但到了南宋,清明最终取代了寒食,成为中国最重要的传统节日之一。祭奠逝者、行清扫墓是清明节最重要的习俗。宋代画家张择端的传世巨作《清明上河图》中,就有相关的节俗内容。在画卷描绘的诸多店铺中,有一个“王家纸马”铺,店前沿街处摆放着精美的纸扎楼阁。此外,《清明上河图》中还有一队出行人物,其中二人抬轿,轿子上插着柳条。正好印证了清明戴柳、驱虫辟邪的习俗。

唐代以来,寒食清明之日,也是人们出游踏青的好时候。其实在清明之前,还有另外一个传统节日——三月三日上巳节。这一天,人们往往沐浴祓禊,踏青出游。王羲之的不朽名作《兰亭集序》,就是记录东晋永和九年上巳节的修禊雅集之事。唐代画家张萱的《虢国夫人游春图》,描绘的是杨贵妃的姐姐虢国夫人三月三日出游的场景。全画虽不绘背景,但从人物踏马行进的闲适状态中,能够感受到春日踏青的轻松气氛。

清明节俗还包括各种体育游戏活动,有蹴鞠、荡秋千、放风筝、斗鸡、射柳等等。清代焦秉贞的精良之作《仕女图册》中,就有一幅《秋千图》。秋千上的蓝衣女子回眸看向身后两名同伴,兴奋之中略带紧张。园中柳条嫩绿,桃花盛开,颇似清明时节的好春景。近代漫画家丰子恺曾作《秋千慵困解罗衣》,以画意述诗情,画中杨柳青青,燕儿双飞,大概正是清明前后的好春光。

清明节是我国历史悠久而意义深远的传统节日。我们展卷卧游,欣赏古代书画、器物中的清明图景,既是一次艺术之旅,也是一次深入了解传统文化的契机。

清明,春半花盛踏青时。

点击观看视频:二十四节气中的中华文化之清明(英文版)

清明:春半花盛踏青时

Qingming (Clear and Bright):

A Solar Term & Festival for Mid-Spring Excursions

Qingming, is a solar term and festival celebrated by the Chinese people since the Tang Dynasty for over one thousand years. According to ancient tradition, people were not allowed to use fire to cook on the Cold Food Day which was 105 days after the Winter Solstice, until a few days later when the solar term of Qingming arrived, allowing people to use fire again.

Using fire to burn joss paper, a practice that sends money and goods to deceased relatives, has been an important custom of Qingming, also known as the Tomb-Sweeping Day. This was depicted in the Chinese scroll painting “Along the River during the Qingming Festival”, an all-time masterpiece created in the 12th century. In the painting, there’s a joss paper shop. And among the 800 or so vivid figures, there are two men carrying a palanquin decorated with willow branches; because people believe willows can ward off evil spirits that wander around during Qingming.

However, Qingming is more than honoring those who have passed. During Qingming, as well as another festival in mid-spring called Shangsi Festival, people often hold outdoor gatherings and excursions to celebrate the season of renewal. Such event was recorded in the “Preface to the Poems Collected from the Orchid Pavilion”, written by the Sage of Chinese Calligraphy Wang Xizhi in the 4th century. The Tang Dynasty painting titled “Lady Guoguo's Spring Outing” depicts noble ladies going on an excursion on horses during the Shangsi Festival. The nine figures ride on the sturdy steeds in a leisurely manner, enjoying the fun and relaxing spring excursion.

The festival of Qingming also includes a variety of sports and games, such as playing the ancient Chinese football Cuju, playing on the swing, flying kites and shooting willows with arrows. Among the court ladies painted by the Qing Dynasty artist Jiao Bingzhen a few centuries ago, a lady in blue is on the swing, looking back at her peers, slightly nervous but excited. The fresh green willow branches and the peach blossoms constitute a lovely spring scene. A modern painting by Feng Zikai, a pioneer in Chinese comic art, renders an ancient poem with the swing, the green willows and the pair of swallows, presenting a presumably good spring day around Qingming .

Qingming is a solar term and Chinese festival with a long and profound history. Travelling in time with the above Chinese paintings is an artistic journey, as well as an opportunity to gain an intuitive and in-depth understanding of the traditional culture of Qingming.

责任编辑:张思宇(QX0007)

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